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Plumbing System

The Plumbing System is the science of installing, repairing and servicing the pipes. It includes the waste pipes, fixture traps, vent pipes, building sewers, drainage pipes and devices within and outside the house, which distributes water in the different part of house. Plumbing system is used for water supply in building. It supplies water to kitchen toilet outlets via distribution system of pipes. Drainage system is used to get rid of human wastes through well-arranged network of drainage pipes.


Drainage, Waste and Vent (DWV) System

The DWV system is the largest part of any plumbing system which consists of three major classes of piping and fittings in a simple drainage system.

1) Drainage Pipes : They receive and convey the used water to a public or private disposal system.

2) Fixture traps : They provide a liquid seal protection without restricting the flow of sewage or other waste.

3) Vent pipes : They admit air to and exhaust air from all parts of the drainage system. That protects fixture traps against siphonage and back pressure.


Water Distribution System

The purpose of distribution system is to deliver water to consumer with appropriate quality, quantity and pressure. Distribution system is used to describe collectively the facilities used to supply water from its source to the point of usage.

Requirements of Good Distribution System:

  1. Water quality should not get deteriorated in the distribution pipes.

  2. It should be capable of supplying water at all the intended places with sufficient pressure head.

  3. It should be capable of supplying the requisite amount of water during firefighting.

  4. The layout should be such that no consumer would be without water supply, during the repair of any section of the system.

  5. All the distribution pipes should be preferably laid one metre away or above the sewer lines.

  6. It should be fairly water-tight as to keep losses due to leakage to the minimum.


The pipe that delivers water to a house (from a city water main or an individual well) is called the service pipe. Typically, a 1-in. service pipe is controlled by a main shutoff valve shortly after it enters a building; but municipal (MPW) hookups may enter a water meter first. Plumbing codes may also require a pressure-reducing valve if water pressure is more than 80 psi (pounds per square inch).



Plumbing is used to ensure safe delivery of water. Clean water usage is made possible only through plumbing which is often taken for granted. It brings comfort and beauty to our living as we are able to use it in several functional areas such as kitchens and bathrooms with such an ease without having a thought of what it would have been if there was no supply of clean water for us. It uses basic laws of nature like gravity and pressure. A plumbing system is composed of two basic subsystems. One brings in the freshwater while the other throws out the wastewater.

Supply System: The water entering a home is under pressure. Hence it is easy to allow it to travel upstairs, at the corners or elsewhere as and when needed. This system includes a main water shutoff or a stop valve to be used during a plumbing emergency. The water from main supply is ready to be used for various drinking and cleaning purposes.

Drainage System: A drainage system does not depend on pressure as all the drainage pipes are angled downward. Hence, gravity pulls off all the waste material. As simple as it may seem, the drainage system involves a lot of complex components like vents, traps and clean outs. These vents allow air to enter through the drainage pipes so as to regulate water flow. Otherwise which the water gets collected in the traps and will require being driven off frequently.

The supply and drainage systems are two different systems with no overlapping between them. There are bridges between the two systems which makes plumbing system successful. They are called fixtures. Toilets, sinks, and tubs are types of fixtures.

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